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タイトル: 1930年代から40年代に日本人が記録したモンゴル民族誌の悉皆調査
その他のタイトル: The Compilation of Japanese studies on the Mongolian Ethnography from 1930's to 1940's : A Comparative Study of past and present style Obo rituals in Inner Mongolia
著者: 武藤, 康弘 link image
著者(別表記) : Muto, Yasuhiro
著者読み: むとう, やすひろ
キーワード: モンゴル民族誌
発行日: 2011年12月31日
出版者: 奈良女子大学文学部
引用: 武藤康弘: 奈良女子大学文学部研究教育年報, 第8号, pp.85-95
抄録: The Obo is the most popular ritual for Mongolian people. The Obo rituals originated from animism style rituals, worship of pebble heaps and hill peaks. Now Obo rituals are performed by local communities. in some case, performed by monks of Tibetan Buddhism. The abo ritual has animistic aspects. This means the ritual may date back to a very old period, maybe to the Neolithic Period (Hong Shan culture). Recenuy, Dr. Borjigin Urtnast. issued a superior study about Obo rituals in Inner Mongolia. This study perfectly covers recent aspects of Obo rituals. But Obo rituals have undergone dramatic change for a recent quarter of century. What is original Obo ritual? This study based on the comparative studies of old and present style Obo rituals and examines the original aspects of Obo rituals. The Obo mainly consists of several pebble heaps; the standard pattern of arrangement is one big main pebble heap and substitute 12 small pebble heaps; they are placed in a single line or in two intersecting lines. All pebble heaps have a sacred pillar at the center of the heap and are decorated with willow branches and sacred cloth called Hadak All sacred pillar links with sacred horse image printed five colored flags. called Hie-Mali in Mongolian. It means wind-horse which spreads the Buddhism around the world. The ordinary Obo rituals are carried out by a local community. But large scale Obo rituals are performed by Tibetan Buddhist Monks. The sequence of rituals are the following: prayers serving boiled meat of sheep, cheese and wine for pebble heaps and then turn around all pebble heaps clockwise. The meanings of rituals are aimed at rain fall, growth of grass, and good feeding of sheep, cows and camels. After a ritual, people attending obo spend in the good time watching horse races, Mongolian style wrestling and archery. Japanese anthropologists and archaeologist made detail reports the Obo-rituals in Inner Mongolia area from 1930's to 1940's. The following are several reports on the Obo rituals. Dr.Tadao Umesao, anthropologist, carried out filed works in in 1944 and reported on everyday life and utensils of Mongolian people. Dr. Namio Egami, archaeologist, explored Inner Mongolia plateau and desert in 1931 and 1935. He reported the Obo rituals in Beizumiao temple (Xilinbote). Dr. Gazin Nagao, Buddhist historian, traveled to several Tibetan Buddhist temples in Inner Mongolia in 1939 and 1943. He reported in detail about Buddhist rituals and the structure of temples and everyday life of Monks. Mr. Tsuneo Yonaiyama. a diplomat stayed at Hailaer from 1933 to 1936 and reported on everyday life of Mongolian and other minority peoples. He made reports on Obo rituals in Holonbair district Mr. Syuyo Koike. a journalist traveled in Xilingol district in 1943. He made detail reports and took many pictures of Obo rituals in Ujimqin district. Many Japanese reported that the Obo rituals were a most significant Tibetan Buddhist ritual for Mongolians performed by monks and accompanied with a living Lama and chief. a kind of feudal lord and aristocrats of the Aimak and Hosyo (The Mongolian administrative district). So many people gathered at the abo and prayed for good feeding of animals. wealth and the good health of people. After rituals they spend a good time watching horse racing. Mongolian style wrestling and archery. From the latter half of 1960's to 1970's. Obo rituals and other Buddhist rituals had became extinct by the non-religion movement in the period of the Cultural Revolution. After that period. in the first half of the 1980's, the Obo rituals revived. but the style of rituals greatly changed. In many small scale local obo rituals. I find that the religious aspects of rituals are scarce. In some cases, the priest does not perform the rituals, carried out by members of local community. But the large scale. provincial obo rituals performed by monks came from nearby big Tibetan Buddhist temples, And the original functions of old style abo rituals pray for wealth and good health of clan. But present Obo rituals have no aspect of these original functions. because of the social structure with feudal aspects has collapsed and similarly the religious community of the monks in temples has collapsed. Now, the original function as Buddhist riruals and clan rituals of the Obo has changed to community reunions. Their transformational process has been still going on.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10935/3051
ISSN: 1349-9882
出現コレクション:第8号

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